This book is the latest in a series of annual studies of economic competitiveness, a concept that refers to sustainable economic growth, but also implies an ability to improve quality of life, strengthen a country's position on foreign markets and increase its attractiveness to foreign investment. The book identifies Poland's competitive position in comparison with other EU member states, especially those in Central and Eastern Europe. The analysis seeks answers to the following questions: How did the competitive position of the Polish economy change from 2010 to 2016? What factors determined these changes? And to what extent, if at all, does Poland make use of international cooperation-especially from the point of view of the internationalization of its national innovation system-to build its competitive position? What are the recommendations for economic policy makers that result from the analysis of changes in Poland's competitiveness in the studied six-year period? The analyses show that, as the country develops, the importance of price competition is decreasing in favor of other factors shaping competitive advantages such as innovation and quality. Better use of these factors can be promoted by enhanced cooperation with foreign partners. Internationalization processes are therefore crucial for a policy of enhancing competitiveness, with a key focus on enabling domestic businesses to join global networks of scientific and business ties, within both international organizations and transnational corporations.